The IMM Consortium

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About IMMC
Who is involved and how the IMM Consortium operates
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Yesterday and today ...more
About Integrated Malaria Management ...more
Scientific Data and Management Information ...more
Links to pdf reports and studies

The cost and effectiveness of different interventions ...more
Ultra Low Volume (ULV) spraying
Mosquitoes can be killed by ultra low volume (ULV) spraying of pesticides. This can be done manually, using vehicle mounted sprays or using aircraft fitted with spray equipment. The sprays used are highly toxic to mosquitoes, but not to humans and other species of insect and animals.

Image credit: Seeking permission

Image credit: Seeking permission

Image credit: Seeking permission

Image credit: Seeking permission

Image credit: Seeking permission
ULV Technology
Using ultra low volume (ULV) technology, a small amount of pesticide can be used over a very large area. The droplets are very small ... less than 50 microns ... small enough to attach to the hairs on a mosquito's leg.

Selection of pesticides
Only inseciticides that are approved for use in the USA by the regulating authorities are permitted for use in IMMC supervised programs. The insecticides selected are those that are the most cost effective without compromising on safety and environmental risk. If a particular insecticide does not kill effectively, perhaps because of resistance, a different insecticide will be used to limit resistance build-up.

Manual fogging
There is hand held equipment that can be used to do ULV ground fogging in places that are otherwise difficult to access. In general hand held equipment uses much more insecticide. It is the most expensive way to carry out ground fogging.

Vehicle mounted fogging equipment
This is a common way to do ULV spraying, and is effective where homes are close to the road system. The fog is effective, depending on wind conditions, for a width of around 300 feet.

Aircraft mounted fogging equipment
Aircraft mounted fogging equipment is the low cost way to carry out ULV treatment. Aerial operations have many advantages including: (1) very large areas can be treated rapidly; and (2) physical constraints on the ground are not a problem.

ULV costs
The elements of cost for ULV interventions are: (1) pesticide; (2) equipment; (3) labor; (4) fuel, maintenance, etc; and, (5) admin., management and oversight. The cost profiles for manual, ground mechanized and aerial are vastly different. For large areas the aerial costs per acre of treatment are low, unless offset by the expense of "idle time".

ULV results
ULV treatment kills mosquitoes. Depending on conditions the kill can be well over 80%, maybe as much as 95%. If the kill is low this may be because of resistance to the pesticide Being used. If there is resistance to one chemical, the chemical is changed to a chemical that belongs to a different chemical family. ULV spraying kills mosquitoes that fly through the fog ... resting mosquitoes may survive. ULV does not stop recruitment and a new population of mosquitoes can build again rapidly without other interventions.

About Integrated Malaria Management ...Go

Surveillance, data collection and analysis ... ...Go
Environmental clean-up ... ...Go
Source control ... ...Go
Interior residual spraying ... ...Go
Ultra Low Volume (ULV) spraying ... ...Go
Personal protection ... insecticide treated bednets ... ...Go
The medical dimension ... ...Go

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