IMMC Inc. Integrated Malaria Management

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Surveillance, data collection and analysis
Understanding the problem in generalities is not good enough. The devil's in the details. There needs to be good data about the community, the behavior of the mosquitoes throughout their life cycle, the status of the malaria parasite in the mosquito population, the prevalence of malaria parasites in the human population, and details of all the interventions that are going on.

Image credit: Seeking permission

Image credit: Seeking permission

Image credit: Seeking permission

Image credit: Seeking permission
In order to have a results based operation, there has to be detailed information. The collection and management of data, therefore, is taken very seriously.

Early detection ... early action
The guiding principle is "early detection ... early action". This concept is a basic of good control theory and management practice. It applies very much, in complex systems that have many variable factors that change rapidly.

Knowing the environment
Data is needed that describes the environment ... in a lot of detail. The system should know about the environment in the way that an individual home owner knows about their own back yard.

Knowing about malaria prevalence
Data are needed to know about malaria prevalence. This is not only a metric for measurement of progress, but also a guide for the most appropriate interventions. These data are obtained from periodic malaria surveillance of the population.

Knowing about the mosquito population
Knowing information ahout the mosquito population is critical. Mosquitoes may be free of malaria parasites and therefore fairly benign, or heavily infected in which case serving as an active vector.

Resistance of mosquitoes
The resistance of mosquitoes to pesticides must be identified as rapidly as possible, and action taken to mitigate the problem, such as changing the type of pesticide.

Resistance of malaria parasite
The resistance of the malaria parasite to drugs must be monitored and managed carefully. Very long use of any drug is likely to cause resistance, and the rapid reinfection rates in malaria endmic regions makes resistance build up a serious problem. This argues for a set of interventions that rapidly reduce the reinfection rate.

Data about interventions
Data about interventions is needed ... and rapid measurement of key factors at rapid intervals after an interventions

Multiple levels of data analysis and action
The data are designed to be used as much as possible for local analysis and local action. But data are also configured so that they can be a part of a large data store that can be used in more comprehensive analysis to optimize malaria managment performance.

Costs and results
Data about the cost of interventions needs to be compiled at a local level, and made a part of the overall data set. An important, of not the ultimate, measure of performance is how much result was achieved for how little money.

Behavior of costs
It is helpful to have a good understanding of the behavior of costs. Some interventions are low cost on a small scale, but hopelessly slow and expensive on a larger scale, as for example, almost all manual operations. On the other hand aerial operations are low unit cost on a large scale and very expensive when used for very small operations.

About Integrated Malaria Management ...Go

Surveillance, data collection and analysis ... Go
Environmental clean-up ... Go
Source control ... Go
Interior residual spraying ... Go
Ultra Low Volume (ULV) spraying ... Go
Personal protection ... insecticide treated bednets ... Go
The medical dimension ... Go

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